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History of British surnames: the influence of the ancient Romans

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You may never have thought about it, but the Roman occupation in part of today’s Great Britain has left much more than the ruins of villas. The Romans, in fact, brought the idea of ​​having different names together with the viaducts and the Hadrian’s Wall.

In fact, all male citizens had two names, one and what we now call surname. Slaves would have only one name, but 3 names would typically be assigned to young people from good families. The first name period indicated as “praenomen”, and period also simply a name, e.g. Gaius, or Julius.

The second of the three names is the “nomen” and identified the family or the tribe in which the boy was born. Julius and Annaeus are examples of “women”, but they weren’t necessarily hereditary. The third name period intended as “cognomen”, and age is purely descriptive and almost always negative. This will seem rather strange to us, but for the Romans, it was normal to give unflattering names to their sons.

Girls were usually given only one name, typically a feminised male name, like Julia, Cornelia and Aurelia.

The Romans remained 400 years, and even though English has words that clearly come from Latin, they are were imported from the French of the Normans rather than directly from the Latin of the Romans. The same goes for surnames; some surnames clearly have Roman origins. Still, we do not know if they remained after the Roman occupation or if they are important conditions later after the Norman conquest of 1066. Some examples of surnames of Roman origins are Martin (quite common), Vincent and Patrick. However, many Roman nomen still survive as first names like Claudia, Marcus,  etc. Only from the Middle Ages onwards did surnames become hereditary, but we will look into it another .time

Worked in many sectors including recruitment and marketing. Lucky to have found a soulmate who was then taken far too soon. No intention of moving on and definitely not moving to Thailand for the foreseeable future. Might move forward. Owned by a cat.

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Food

Isabella Beeton – Author of Mrs Beeton’s Book of Household Management

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Possibly some people today may not have heard of Mrs Beeton, who in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, was a household name. She was well known for Mrs Beeton’s Book of Household Management, published in 1859 – 61, which contained everything a prosperous  Victorian housewife, would need to know for running the home.  The public then and in the years that followed,  visualized her as a matronly cook, but nothing could be further from the truth.
 
Isabella Mary Mayson was born  14th March 1836, in Milk Lane, London. Her father died when she was young and her mother remarried, Henry Dorling, who worked as a clerk at Epsom racecourse. The family had lodgings there,  and Isabella was able to see at first hand, the organisation involved in running  kitchens, that catered for large numbers of people.
 
 On 10th July 1856 Isabella married Samuel Beeton, a publisher of books and magazines, and she started writing articles on cookery, to be included in his publications. Isabella lived a surprisingly modern married  life, commuting with her husband into the London office by train from Pinner. She also made annual trips to Paris, enabling her to write articles on fashion. At the same time, in the short space of eight years,
by Maull & Polyblank, hand-tinted albumen print, 1857
Isabella had numerous miscarriages and still births, giving birth to four sons, only two of which, survived to adulthood. These experiences were excessive even at a time of high infant mortality rate. Isabella died  in 1865 at the age of twenty eight following the birth of her youngest son. 
 
Isabella ‘s publishing success, while facing these health difficulties , was therefore a tremendous achievement. Her famous book on Household Management contained over 1,112 pages, with many coloured illustrations and nine hundred recipes. She taste tested these recipes in her kitchen and in the severe winter of 1858, handed out a nourishing beef and vegetable broth, to poor families for a penny a quart.
 
 Nevertheless, her skill was not in cooking, but in collecting and editing material for the book. In later years, the two sons who survived to reach adulthood, heard some mockery of the  scale of the ingredients in some of the recipes. However Mrs Beeton was writing for very large Victorian families, who would require dishes made, for example with twelve eggs!
 
Samuel Beeton, Isabella’s widower, continued to promote the image of her as a matronly cook, in order to publicise the book, and that is the image of her that has persisted throughout history.

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History

Jewel Tower, a medieval building in central London

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Not everyone knows it or notices it, yet it is one of two remaining parts of the original Palace of Westminster. The Jewel Tower, built between 1365 and 1366 during the reign of King Edward III, was located in the southwest corner of the Palace of Westminster , located next to Westminster Abbey. The tower housed the values ​​and documents of most of the royal family. important and also valuable goods, consisting of jewels, dishes and fabrics.

Located in the heart of Westminster, the Gem Tower, initially recognized as the Gem House, is one of the two buildings of the Palace of Westminster to survive the fire of 16 October 1834, which destroyed the famous medieval palace. From 1200 onwards that the Palace of Westminster was the principal residence of the English monarchy, and also the seat of the. court and numerous other government divisions.

The entire royal residence was delimited by a wall, which created the boundary, along which various portals and also towers were built, including the great entrance, as well as the Gem Tower. The design of the walls was innovative and guaranteed that no one entered the king’s garden, and therefore protected by a water-filled moat that was right in the Thames.

Once completed, the tower  consisted of 3 main floors connected by a spiral staircase, each floor with a large rectangular space and a small verse. The 2 upper floors were used to preserve the royal wardrobe, with the best possible items preserved. on the top floor, in closed wooden chests. On the ground floor lived the keeper of the king’s jewels.

It is his duty to ensure that all objects housed in the tower were registered correctly. The custodian is also responsible for lending objects to be used in other royal residences or banquets and for accepting their return, noting any breakages that could have required repairs.

Dalla great del 1300 onwards, a large variety of items were housed in the tower, many of which were pieces of silver platter, including serving plates, goblets, saucers, spoons, jugs and plates.

When there are no pandemics, you can visit the Tower which now belongs to English Heritage. It is located advertisement Abingdon Road on the opposite side of the Houses of Parliament.

 

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Health

A coronavirus epidemic happened 20,000 years ago in Asia

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Although the Covid – 19 for the first time was transmitted from animals to humans two years ago, there is evidence that coronaviruses triggered epidemics as early as the Stone Age. Scientists have analyzed the genomes of human remains from the Stone Age and found that people in Asia first encountered the virus around twenty thousand years ago. As this study shows, but beware this study hasn’t been peer-reviewed yet. There is a lot  more to do to be able to understand how ancient pandemics were and what was the mortality rate.

Coronaviruses use human cells to multiply and by doing so leave traces in the human genome. Scientists believe that a coronavirus triggered an epidemic in East Asia that might have lasted at least two years. The advantage they had in those days is that without planes or ships, travelling was mostly local and therefore epidemics could not spread far and fast as they do now. 

The researchers now hope to be able to develop a model based on the available data. In the future, you could make a forecast of when and where a new pandemic will begin. If we know more about the transmission of coronaviruses from animal to human, then we can react in good time to avoid further pandemics.

 

 

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